SIGMA³ offers a full suite of seismic analysis solutions. The goal of seismic analysis is to extract additional information from seismic data beyond the conventional approaches to structural mapping and stratigraphic interpretation. Seismic analysis provides powerful additional information that can be used to lower your risk in exploration, and to quantify your reserves in production. Seismic analysis offerings include:
- AVO for Fluids & Lithology
- Neural Network Inversion
- Spectral Decomposition
- FluidPRO™ Fluid Property Inversion
- ThinMAN™ Spectral Inversion
- LithPRO™ Multi-Attribute Inversion
- Seismic Attribute Analysis
- Shallow Hazard Analysis
- AVO for Fluids & Lithology
The SIGMA³ approach to AVO analysis is aimed at understanding the full range of physical properties of the rocks and fluids that may be present in the subsurface. Rather than starting with an observed AVO anomaly and generating a discrete earth model that matches and using this to evaluate risk, we start by looking at the geology and the range of possible rock properties. Forward modeling of these physical properties produces a range of possible seismic amplitude responses. Only by comparing the observed anomaly with these expectations built from our geological knowledge can the observed amplitude anomaly be correctly evaluated.
To risk a prospect we must know how closely the AVO matches the expected response for oil or gas AND how closely it matches brine or other lithologic responses that could mislead the interpreter. SIGMA³ offers the full range of AVO and other offset-dependent analysis methods that are designed to accurately predict the rock and fluid properties in the subsurface. These methods are offered as stand-alone products or as part of integrated studies involving multiple data types.
Neural Network Inversion
The use of artificial intelligence algorithms to solve geophysical problems is an exciting recent development in the field. Neural network inversion (NNI) uses the information from multiple wells and seismic data to train the Neural Network to predict properties away from the well control. SIGMA³ offers a range of NNI methods using resistivity and acoustic methods, and we apply these methods to some of the industry´s most difficult problems.
SIGMA³ has developed a unique approach to spectral decomposition that has proven to be superior to all other available techniques, including Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT), Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) and Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) methods. This proprietary method is an instantaneous spectral attribute which was originally trademarked under the name InSpect™. Additional research and development led to a second major breakthrough, resulting in the release of an even better algorithm called ExSpect™. The ExSpect algorithm is a significant improvement over all previous methods, and is now being offered both as a service and as a supplemental module to the SpecMAN™ spectral analysis toolkit.
FluidPRO™ Fluid Properties Inversion
FluidPRO is a proprietary technique for performing fluid properties inversion, and we offer this technique as a service to clients who are interested in understanding the variations in fluid properties in their reservoir as a means to better predict reservoir performance and to plan for field development. FluidPRO requires two primary inputs including (1) seismic attributes extracted on the horizon or interval of interest and (2) rock physics calibration from wells in the area. The FluidPRO process provides several outputs including, (1) maps of the estimated fluid properties for a given horizon or interval, (2) a map of the cumulative probability distribution function for that horizon or interval, (3) quality control maps for each estimated fluid property map, (4) digital data for each of the products above, and (5) a final report with analysis and interpretation.
ThinMAN™ Broadband Spectral Inversion
A revolutionary broadband spectral inversion technique that produces ultra-high-resolution seismic data that enhances mapping and further analysis, ThinMAN removes the deleterious effects of the seismic wavelet that cause degraded resolution. The ThinMAN process can be performed without well calibration, and requires no a priori model, no interpreted horizons, and no assumed reflectivity spectra.
LithPRO™ Multi-Attribute Inversion
LithPRO is an advanced statistical attribute inversion technology that provides robust statistical attribute analysis in complex geologic settings that can be used to dramatically improve the results of reservoir characterization and prediction studies. It is designed to handle a wide range of attributes including spectral attributes generated from the SIGMA³ proprietary InSpect spectral decomposition algorithm. LithPRO allows the user to apply intelligent design concepts to the use seismic attributes to dramatically enhance reservoir characterization studies.
Seismic Attribute Analysis
SIGMA³ has considerable experience in attribute analysis and geostatistics. We use attributes from the seismic data along with well control to map the physical properties measured from the well over the area covered by the seismic data. The first step is to identify which seismic attributes, individually or in combination, provide the optimal correlation with the rock properties. We have successfully applied this technology in exploration and field development scenarios. Most seismic attributes are, however, bulk averages over as much as several hundred feet of rock, and the predicted maps are also restricted by this resolution limit. We can offer geostatistical predictions with significantly higher vertical resolution by including a layered template built from well logs or external geological models into the analysis. This approach produces a 3D volume of the target reservoir that can be used for detailed reservoir characterization.
HazPRO™ Shallow Hazard Analysis
Deepwater environments are known for their shallow hazards, SIGMA³ scientists are at the forefront of recent developments in the field of shallow hazard analysis and particularly in the prediction of shallow water flows (SWF). We apply this experience to perform shallow hazard analysis using our proprietary methods in geopressure prediction, seismic attribute analysis and advanced velocity and tomography analysis. These methods provide robust interpretation for the challenges that our clients face in drilling their most important deepwater prospects, and assure that these very costly exploration wells can be drilled and completed within budget and without major incidents in the shallow section.